When working with or purchasing lithium batteries, it's important to have a clear understanding of the fundamental principles associated with lithium batteries, particularly in regard to voltage and nominal voltage.Battery recycling machine Often, we refer to a battery's voltage to ascertain its specifications.
Voltage encompasses the full charge voltage and discharge termination voltage. To understand the range of lithium battery voltages, it's beneficial to differentiate between lithium battery cell voltage and lithium battery pack voltage.cylindrical battery pack mahcine Different types of lithium batteries have varying voltage ranges. It's also crucial to comprehend nominal voltage for a comprehensive understanding of lithium battery voltage ranges.
Let's delve into these concepts individually:
Exploring the Voltage Range from the Lithium Cell Perspective:
Lithium batteries primarily fall into two categories:cell stacking machine lithium polymer battery cells and lithium iron phosphate battery cells. Their core voltages vary due to the distinct characteristics of the chemical raw materials used in their manufacture.
1. Lithium Polymer Battery Cell Voltage Range:
The full charge voltage for lithium polymer battery cells ranges from 4.2V to 4.45V.
Generally, a voltage of 4.35V or above indicates a high-voltage core, boasting relatively high energy density. These high-voltage cores demand more stringent manufacturing requirements and come at a higher price. However, most batteries on the market have a full voltage of 4.2V, a nominal voltage of 3.7V, and a termination voltage of 3.2V. These batteries have a lower technology threshold and are widely used, especially in 3C electronic products.
2. Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Cell Voltage Range:
Lithium iron phosphate battery cells have a voltage range of 2.0V to 3.65V.
A full voltage for lithium iron phosphate battery cells is 3.65V, with a termination voltage of 2.0V. To enhance the battery cell's service life, most manufacturers set the termination voltage slightly higher than 2.0V. Although lithium iron phosphate battery cells have lower energy density compared to lithium polymer batteries, they offer enhanced safety performance at a lower cost. Consequently, many new energy vehicles now use lithium iron phosphate batteries.
Understanding the Voltage Range from the Battery Pack Perspective:
The voltage of a single battery cell is typically 4.2V or lower. However, when buying or customizing batteries, you might come across cells with voltages exceeding 4.2V, such as 6V, 12V, 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V, 72V, and so forth. These higher voltages pertain to the battery pack, where individual cells are combined to create a larger unit. Consequently, the voltage naturally increases. Generally, battery packs achieve voltages of 6V or higher by connecting lithium cells in series. The capacity, in turn, is determined by parallel configurations of these cells.
In essence, the voltage of lithium battery cells is lower, whereas the voltage of lithium battery packs is higher. Distinguishing between them might not be straightforward, and different battery voltages serve varying applications and scenarios.