At the ITU-r wp5ditu-r wp5d#35 meeting that ended on July 9, the 5g and nb iottechnology set submitted by 3GPP was officially accepted as the itu imt-2020 5G technology standard. It is worth noting that the 3GPP technologies adopted this time include the 3gpp nr+NB-IoT RIT submitted in China.
In 2015, ITU released its vision requirements for 5G, specifying that 5G must support three scenarios: enhanced mobile communications (eMBB), low latency high reliability (uRLLC) and massive IoT connectivity (mMTC). However, the realization of the above three scenarios is dependent on the realization of various 5G technology standards.
The standardization of 5G vision scenarios is a gradual process of development and realization. While eMBB was implemented in version R15, uRLLC and mMTC were only effectively realized in version R16, which was adopted in July. At the same time, the standard of 5G carries on the actual standard set, and different national standard systems can be able to achieve the same application research effect of enterprises, which can not rely on the choice of individual countries and national regions at all. For example, at the same time we adopted by the 3GPP submitted by the NR + LTE SRIT and NR RIT, as well as a Korean submitted by the 3GPP NR RIT, can also achieve their own corresponding functions.
The 3gpnr+NB-IoT RITs submitted and adopted in China are for different scenarios of 5G, NR for embB and URLLC scenarios, and NB-IoT for mMTC scenarios. The adoption of these two technical standards enables the three 5G service scenarios to be supported by the corresponding standards.
During the evolution of 5g standards, countries have been very active in organizing the participation of domestic companies. In each standard, the results of intellectual property rights, such as patents, are included. China has been implementing global standardization since the 3G era and has a considerable voice in the 5G era. Behind the 3gpp nr + nb-iot rit standard, there are many patent achievements of operators and equipment manufacturers.
The inclusion of NR and NB-IoT in the 5G standard has three major impacts on the industry.
First, there is a direction for the development of the existing industry. nb-iot is the standard for the 5g era, and it gives the relevant enterprises in the industry chain a piece of mind to continue investing; after all, there is room for the development of the standard at least in the next decade. Looking back at the previous cdma industry, it was soon abandoned by the industry chain because there was no evolutionary path for 4g.
Second, all three scenarios of 5G are supported by the standard, and various services can be formally developed. Before the relevant standards are formally adopted, it is the period when the boots are not yet on the ground. Trials are possible, but policies are not encouraged and demand is doubtful.
Third, domestic standards can help improve industrial autonomy. In the unfavorable international economic situation, domestic issues raised in the standard, the proportion of foreign-related intellectual property rights is bound to require a lower, on the one hand, our students independent innovation development as well as a larger space; another important aspect, in the intellectual property rights accounted for less than a certain threshold, foreign components are available to domestic producers product exports.
Looking back, since nb-iot was first proposed in 2015, many people still wonder what kind of network nb-iot is and how it differs from wifi, Bluetooth, and 2g, 3g and 4g networks in terms of transmission methods and applications.
But NB-IoT has gone through several phases, with the standard freeze in 2016, ready solutions in 2017, ecological maturity in 2018, and commercial scale in 2019. Nearly 100 NB-IoT commercial networks are also used globally, with more than 100 million business connections, delivering a satisfactory answer sheet to the world.
Specific practical applications for scenario design, NB-IoT initially applied in the field of water meters, gas meters, with the evolution of national standards development, chip work performance continues to improve, NB-IoT gradually can be applied to all walks of life in society, the application of research scenarios extended to electric vehicles, white goods, smart city home, smart domestic logistics services consumption and electronics and other various fields. And with the evolution of network protocols, R14 uplink rate thus reaches 150Kbps, exceeding GPRS IoT technology; R15/R16 time delay and power consumption are further reduced by nearly half, and the coverage distance will reach 120km.
In October 2019, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology clearly stated that China's mobile communication network is facing 2g and 3g network withdrawal conditions have gradually matured, encouraging enterprise operations to actively guide users to migrate to the network.
Recently, as the domestic 2G online users of the largest number of friends, clearly using NB-IoT and LTE Cat.1 technology to undertake 2G IoT business, and determine the end of 2020 to stop adding 2G IoT users.
The inclusion of NB-IoT into the official working standard of 5G means a longer life development cycle. 5G commercialization has just been opened. It is expected that in the next 10-20 years, 5G will be a global domestic mobile Internet communication mainstream. NB-IoT obtains 5G family officially carries on the identity, its life activity cycle will be synchronized with other 5G technologies can be synchronized, which means that water meters, gas meters such as battery system power supply capacity to continue stable operation for 5-10 years of NB-IoT device management enterprises, and no need to worry about due to The financial risk of equipment replacement brought by the continuous change of network information technology.
In the 5G era, 80% of connections will be for object-to-object connections. Since its birth, NB-IoT has been dedicated to object-oriented communication. Domestic NB-IoT has achieved more than 100 million dollars of connectivity, and NB-IoT has become a true pioneer of 5G.
Various measures to promote the ecological construction of domestic telecom industry
With the inclusion of NB-IoT into the 5G standard, the development direction of the industry is clear. As a key player in the 5G industry ecology, domestic telecoms will adopt three response strategies.
First, at the infrastructure level, new standards will be introduced in 5g network construction, and 5g network development will be introduced in existing nb-iot networks. An integrated and unified advanced infrastructure will be formed.
Secondly, at the industry chain promotion level, the industry will be guided by industrial policies such as terminal module subsidies to promote the upstream of the industry, accelerate the launch of new technology and standard products, and rapidly expand the industrial ecology.
Third, at the level of industrial technology application research, it will realize the collaborative innovation development of eMBB, uRLLC and mMTC various scenarios through the implementation of the reform and open economy strategy.
In 2017, Domestic Telecom deployed the world's first nb-iot commercial network with continuous coverage, the largest scale and the widest coverage. Currently, there are over 410,000 nb base stations with over 50,000,000 connections. More than 25 million terminals have been connected, covering smart meter reading, smart parking, smart street lighting and smart home appliances.
In 2018, a well-known home appliance company adopted Skywing IoT's NB-IoT shared leasing solution and won the first opportunity to develop campus laundry with a stable and reliable user service experience. By the end of 2019, domestic telecom has helped customers deploy 40,000 5G NB-IoT shared laundry machines in nearly 600 regions in 29 provinces and municipalities directly under the central government, with a cumulative order of over 10 million times and a flow of nearly 100 million yuan, with a success rate of 99.9%.
In the field of public culture development, as early as 2016, domestic research telecommunications, Huawei, together with Shenzhen gas, Shenzhen water and other cooperative learning partners to open China's first domestic NB-IoT gas, water meter reading pilot construction projects. in September 2019, domestic and international telecommunications NB-IoT smart gas connection technology exceeded 10 million, helping the gas engineering industry needs to set a digital economic transformation benchmark and become the first NB-IoT application to influence the world to break through the 10 million scale.
It is not difficult to imagine that with the expansion of the scale of base station deployment, the increasing maturity and stability of the chip, the gradual improvement of the IoT platform, and the continuous decline of the chip module price, NB-IoT will also show a faster scale deployment effect.
Technology is advancing. Edge computing involves mobile towers processing and storing more data locally rather than relying on far-off cloud data centers. These characteristics make 5G a more viable alternative to cable broadband in the future.
So, will Wi-Fi be replaced by 5G? The likelihood is that the two technologies will coexist for a while while network rollouts advance and businesses make tactical choices about how their IT infrastructure should change. In some circumstances, 5G can aid in resolving many of the issues related to Wi-Fi deployments.
Another often utilized feature to lower the power consumption of LPWA devices is PSM. PSM sleep periods are often substantially longer than eDRX. The gadget can go into a deeper, lower power sleep phase than eDRX thanks to these prolonged sleep times (e.g. PSM sleep power is a few microamps whereas eDRX sleep power is 10-30 microamps).
The relation between the subcarrier spacing f and the usable symbol time Tu in OFDM is Tu = 1/f. Because Phase 1 of 5G NR specifies five f values (15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 kHz), the useful symbol times Tu's for OFDM will decrease by half when the f value doubles.